Zeaxanthin macular degeneration

Corn contains a large amount of zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin macular degeneration is an important subject for every single human being; a deficiency is the most common cause of age related blindness after 55; it blinds five million Americans and many more are only partially sighted.

This page was last updated by Dr Barrie Lewis on 30th August, 2019.

We need to add that scientists remain divided on the topic; but because of the severity of AMD and the simplicity of increasing these carotenes in the diet, it makes sense to be on the safe side.

Zeaxanthin works with another carotenoid called lutein; they are isomers with the same chemical structure; together they are found in very high concentrations in the macula of the eye where fine discrimination and colour are detected.

Studies at the Linus Pauling Institute have shown that a diet rich in carotenes helps prevent cardiovascular disease and some tumours but taken in capsules it has little value; it probably applies in general to supplements but research is lacking.

In short, enjoying foods high in zeaxanthin makes more sense than getting it from a bottle; a lot cheaper too. 

Zeaxanthin is not an uncommon carotenoid. It is found in many vegetables and fruit; it gives them their characteristic yellow or reddish colour.

The name is given to this xanthophyll from the botanical name for corn, namely Zea mays.

Hence it is known as mais in Dutch and maize in English.

So, it is found in corn, citrus and many greens such as spinach, kale and lettuce, but in much smaller quantities in iceberg. Carrots, broccoli and green beans are also good sources of zeaxanthin.

Carotenoids are better absorbed in the presence of fat, so enjoying your corn with butter, or your green salad with olive oil makes good sense.

Folk enjoying a varied diet with many coloured foods need have no worries about zeaxanthin macular degeneration; if you are still on meat and potatoes then there are serious concerns, particularly if you also smoke.


Together with lutein, zeaxanthin macular degeneration is also involved in the prevention of cataracts.

Zea + xanthophyll becomes zeaxanthin.

Zeaxanthin macular degeneration

Zeaxanthin macular degeneration is all about the prevention of the most common cause of age related blindness. A deficiency of these carotenoids in the diet leads directly to the use of the white cane; as always, prevention is better than a cure.

Oddly they are only of known importance in the cones of the eye; their concentration in other parts of the body is much lower. Their particular value is in absorbing high energy radiation entering the lens, particularly the blue components that would damage the retina.

Phytochemicals are known as functional foods; they enhance health and prevent disease. Some of them like the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are well researched as in the prevention of age onset macular degeneration, but there are thousands, and many of their specific roles are quite unknown; that's why those eating many coloured foods every day enjoy much better health.

Certainly they have antioxidant properties, and in reducing inflammation, and preventing cancer and red, angry joints and muscles; blood vessels too.

Others like lignans and isoflavonoids in seeds, whole grains and legumes, researchers have found give protection against breast cancer for example.

It's a colossal subject, fascinating for researchers, but for us we simply must make sure we are enjoying a wide range of whole, and especially coloured foods.

The food industry alas refines out most of these phytochemicals, rendering a typical supermarket diet dull and potentially dangerous to health.

It's important to enjoy them in as many different ways as possible. Generally raw foods would have more vitamin C for example, but it is interesting that the lycopene in tomatoes is released in far greater abundance if it is cooked in a small amount of fat.

Allicin is another important phytochemical found most richly in garlic, but the whole onion family in general. So, enjoying leek soup for example is one excellent and tasty way to get sufficient of this functional food.

A wonderful cocktail of these carotenoids is to be had in eggs Florentine; lightly fry half an onion, garlic and tomato in butter. Toss on a pile of spinach and other mixed greens like kale; when steamed through, plop a couple eggs on the vegetables, and enjoy on 100% wholemeal, buttered toast.

This delicious meal will contain allicin in the onion and garlic, lycopene in the tomato, lutein and zeaxanthin in the spinach and omega-3 in the egg yolks, especially if they come from free range hens. The generous blob of butter promotes the absorption of these phytochemicals, as does the fat in the eggs.


Carotenoids are the bright colours in pumpkins, tomatoes, spinach and beets, for example. They are powerful antioxidants, mopping up the free radicals that damage our DNA; zeaxanthin macular degeneration is just one of many. 


Orange peppers

Egg yolks

Yellow corn




Lettuce, cos

Parsley, cilantro



1.2 mg







Zea + lutein








Some of these figures are a bit of by guess and by God; different sites have wildly different statistics. Don't consider them absolute but rather as a rough guide. In short, spinach and kale are queen of the eyes. If you enjoy them regularly you need have no fear of age onset macular degeneration; have them with an egg and you are home and dry.

Eight colors eggs Florentine

Eight colors eggs Florentine combines many of the sources of lutein and zeaxanthin to give you great protection against macular degeneration. We have it every morning; toss in a few broad beans in season; and half a tomato to protect the prostate.

This photo incidentally was taken before we turned to free range cage free eggs; see how pale the yolks are? That means far less carotenes.

Researchers reporting in the British Journal of Ophthalmology report that egg yolks and corn are the richest sources of lutein and zeaxanthin[1]. In general they recommend many coloured fruits and vegetables.

Eight colours eggs Florentine is a rich source of phytochemicals.


L-DOPA is a phytochemical produced by certain plants such as the broad bean; it is used by the brain to synthesize dopamine, a vital neurotransmitter, a deficiency of which is known to cause Parkinson's disease. Will it supplement the effect of zeaxanthin in preventing Macular Degeneration?

Scientists reporting about L-DOPA and Age-related Macular Degeneration in the American Journal of Medicine have found that patients taking L-DOPA for Parkinson's disease get Macular Degeneration a very significant 8 years later than the general population; at 79 instead of 71.

The 'retinal pigment epithelium' is a layer of cells that nourishes the overlying 'retinal visual cells.' This epithelial layer has a receptor that responds to L-DOPA, stimulating the growth and nourishment of the rods and cones, the retinal visual cells.

Whilst it's known that the L-DOPA in broad beans will benefit those suffering from Parkinson's disease, it is not illogical to presume that they would also help in the prevention and even treatment of Macular Degeneration. I know of no research confirming this.

› Zeaxanthin macular degeneration


Chiropractic was born out of the naturopathic movement; hence our interest in subjects like zeaxanthin macular degeneration; I have numerous elderly patients suffering from the disease.

We are now recommending the regular consumption of broad beans, along with dark green leafy vegetables and coloured fruits and vegetables; they are the best non-meat source of protein in any case.

And omega-3 rich foods too.

Because of many links to our two sister sites, Bernard-Preston.com and Chiropractic-books.com we have been accused of being a link farm, a dreaded connotation. It's irritating but to find links to the subjects in bold you have to copy and paste it into the site search function in the navigation bar on your left.

Did you find this page useful? Then perhaps forward it to a suffering friend. Better still, Tweet or Face Book it.

Interesting challenges of the day

1. Mr S is a 76 year old man with neck pain of some 9 months duration. Luckily, most of the discomfort is upper cervical which is only rarely arthritic; his lower cervical spine is a degenerative mess that I've left alone. After seven treatments his pain and stiffness is 50 percent better, and he's happy in the circumstances. He can sleep through the night now and that makes a huge difference.

2. Mr P is 32 year old man with very severe lower back pain radiating to the big toe which is 30 percent numb. He had an episode three weeks ago, took anti inflammatories and was soon better as is typical of the medial disc herniation. But before it healed, after a trivia it came roaring back, much worse. The characteristic crossed sign was evident; sitting in a chair, straightening the right leg provoked severe left back pain and tingling in the leg. He's doing well.

3. Severe lower back pain is scary; just ask Mrs P. Just watching her get out of the car I she was in trouble; she had a slipped disc at L4 making her lean towards the opposite side; luckily she had no pain in the leg. Despite family pressure that this was far too severe for a chiropractor, she persevered. Within five days she was standing upright, and after two weeks almost painfree. 

Despite a hectic job, she wisely took my advice and stayed home for what I call exercising bed rest.

4. Mr S has had lower back, groin and back of thigh and calf pain for fourth months.

He has a pincer deformity in the hip causing the stabs in the groin, and a degenerative facet causing the sciatica. Both are responding well to chiropractic and he's well pleased; sixty five percent better after three treatments.

5. Mr T is a wise man; he's taken a warning TIA seriously and has lost 15 pounds, and has at least as much again to lose. A change to a low starch diet and half hour daily walk has made the difference; but the walking is making his foot and back miserable. The expensive orthotic is hopeless; luckily his hips and back are fine, but he needs a simple heel lift.

6. I too have had serious lower back issues, luckily fixed by my own chiropractor; so I too have to do my exercises, take care when lifting supers full of honey, gardening and using the chainsaw. Regaining the function of your spine is just as important as the pain.

7. My own granddaughter, only 7 is hypermobile giving her pelvic, knee and ankle issues. Xrays show a mildly dysplastic hip. Years ago we would have called it growing pains. She too regularly needs chiropractic care and luckily responds well. Increased range of motion is more difficult than too stiff in my opinion. Our care is for kids too.

8. This 65 year old lady is a serious gardener; every day she is bending, lifting and digging for 2 to 3 hours a day. It regularly catches her in the sacroiliac joint, so she has a treatment once a month that sorts it out. She does her lower back exercises faithfully.

9. This 88 year old lady is an inspiration; every day she is busy in the community. With a nasty scoliosis she manages very well with a chiropractic adjustment every six weeks and exercises faithfully done.  

10. Mr X is a 71 year old retired man who wants to continue with maintenance care every six to eight weeks; he had suffered from two years of lower back pain when he first came a year ago. He has no discomfort now after 8 chiropractic treatments, but is aware that danger lurks.

11. Mrs C has been having severe headaches, and taking a lot of analgesics. It's a non complicated upper cervical facet syndrome, and she's doing well.

12. Mr D is a 38 old year man with chronic shoulder pain after a rotator cuff tear playing cricket. It responded well to treatment, but he knows he must do his exercises every day; for two years he couldn't sleep on that shoulder.

13. Mr D, a 71 year old man, has a severe ache in the shoulder and midback since working above his head. Trapped nerve tests are negative but he has advanced degenerative joints of Luschka; after just two treatments he is 50 percent better. Can we reach 90?

And so the day goes; chiropractors shouldn't be treating the elderly most medical sites state but that's so much bunkum.

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