Keywords; deep upper back pain, upper limb tension test, cervical facet syndrome, tingling in arms and hands.
The villain of the peace, disturbing your nights and causing a deep constant ache, is often an irritated nerve supply to the rhomboid muscles which is pure C5 or the levator scapular which is also mainly the fifth cervical nerve, but also with contributions from C3 and C4.
They are innervated by the Dorsal Scapula nerve that comes from the mid neck, specifically the C5 root.
Deep upper back pain is difficult to manage for a number of reasons.
Neuro anatomy is a difficult subject so just scroll down if you're really not interested in the following paragraph. Sorry, always a tidbit to stretch jah! Notice how this nerve complex lies in the groove just behind the collarbone.
Notice the two terms "root" and "ramus" below.
There are two "roots", one is sensory, the dorsal root, bringing information in from the fingers tips for example. Pain, touch, position sense, mechano receptors and so on.
The other "root" is motor, the ventral root, taking information from the "grey matter" in the spinal cord to the muscles, for example. If you want to raise your arm, the stimulus to the muscle is relayed along the ventral root.
It's these "roots" that are affected by a slipped disc, or degenerative change, or subluxations in the spine. Cervical facet syndrome ....
Thumb and forefinger tingling? Then the dorsal nerve "root" of the C6 nerve root is being irritated. Can't do a press up? Then it's probably the motor "root" of C7 that is pinched because the triceps muscle is weak. Trivial details for you, vital stuff for your chiropractor.
Then the two roots join (ignore that bump on the dorsal root) to form a "spinal nerve." (Ignore the white and gray ramuses or rami too).
Then the spinal nerve divides into two "rami". Singular "ramus." It's the ventral ramus of C5 that goes on to form (in part, continuing to form the Median and Ulnar, and other, nerves that supply the arm) the Dorsal Scapular nerve. The nerve that innervates our two muscles, the Rhomboids and the Levator Scapular.
THE INTER SCALENE TRIANGLE
("inter" = between - between two scalene muscles)
The inter scalene triangle is bordered by the anterior and middle scalene muscles (in red), and the first rib below (grey).
From there, the Dorsal Scapular nerve enters the Inter Scalene Triangle and, instead of passing through it, penetrates through the belly of the Medial (middle) Scalene muscle, one of the boundaries of the triangle.
After penetrating the Medial Scalene muscle, the Dorsal Scapular nerve descends, piercing the Levator Scapular muscle (sending off branches to innervate the muscle) and proceeding to innervate the Rhomboid muscles.
Anywhere along this path, the nerve root, as it passes in the inter scalene triangle, through the Medial Scalene muscle, piercing the Levator Scapular muscle, there is the potential for the nerve to be irritated: deep upper back pain.
What medical causes should be included?
Let's admit they aren't common, but they must be considered. The only patient that I recall to appear at my chiropractic coalface with deep upper back pain caused by lung cancer was my father. It had already been diagnosed and surprisingly his last days were greatly helped by gentle chiropractic treatment of his deep upper back pain. The cause, not subluxations, but referred pain from the cancerous tissue in his lung; smokers beware.
Secondary cancers, particularly from a primary breast cancer, to the ribs are always a concern in Chiropractic clinics, even years after breast cancer patients have been declared "clear".
Others? I'm sure there are plenty, but lets be realistic: when you hear hoofbeats, don't think zebras! Pancreatic cancer causes deep upper back pain, heart attack causes neck and jaw, back and arm pain. An aortic aneurism... this is an interesting web page: Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis ...
Right, now to the heart of this page. Firstly, I'll list the thoughts that come to my head:
In short, there are a lot of possible causes of deep upper back pain.
C5 nerve root lesion
The C5 nerve root, affected for example by a slipped disc in neck supplies sensory innervation to the skin on the side of the upper arm extending down the lower arm towards, but not including the thumb; and muscular innervation to numerous muscles, but usually the biceps and the biceps reflex would be tested.
The deltoid is another muscle often tested for C5, but truth is that there has often been a low grade irritation of the nerve (axillary nerve, C5/C6) leading resulting in painful shoulder pathology such as rotator cuff syndrome ... resulting in pain inhibition during testing.
Because both the biceps and deltoid (and all the other muscles of C5, bar rhomboids) are supplied by C5 AND C6, true neurogenic weakness is not common.
A key sign is the so-called Shoulder Abduction Relief sign in which relief is obtained by placing the hand on the head. It takes the stretch off the nerve root.
Conversely, the Upper Limb Tension Test (a test you can do at home) places increasing stress on the nerve root producing tightness, pain and tingling in the arm.
C6, C7 and C8 nerve root lesions
These roots are not likely to cause upper back pain, but rather pain and tingling in arms and hands, and especially the lower arm and fingers.
T1, T2, T3, T4 nerve root lesions
T1 nerve root is a primary candidate of suspicion when dealing with deep upper back pain, the pain usually extending in this instance down the inner arm, and sometimes to the chest.
Again the SAR and ULTT tests will be positive.
Specific muscle weakness in the hand will be sought by your chiropractor. In particular, "opposition" of the thumb and pinkie, and the muscles that you would use to squeeze your fingers together (PAD muscles) and apart (DAB muscles).
Deep upper back pain, AND tingling down the inner arm, AND weakness in the hand? T1 nerve root lesion.
Cervical compression and Spurling's tests
Both the C5 and T1 lesions, if severe, will produce radiating pain when turning the head to the side of pain and then looking up. If extra downward pressure is exerted by your chiropractor, then it's called Spurling's test.
In short, does turning to the same side produce deep upper back pain and/ or tingling and pain in the arm?
Another series of tests that your chiropractor would do are the Cervical Compression tests ... this is a fun page, don't miss it!
THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME
I won't write much here as there is extensive coverage of the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome at this Chiropractic Help website. The key sign is that elevation of the arm, instead of relieving the symptoms, makes them worse. Both the artery and the bundle of nerves called the "brachial plexus" are irritated primarily by a subluxated first rib.
It is diagnosed using a difficult test known as Adson's test
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